Institute of Petroleum Engineering

Centre for Gas Hydrate Research Publications

Abstract 054
Global Warning: A Review of the Options for CO2 Disposal
Tohidi, B., and Llamedo, M.
The 4th International Chemical Engineering Congress, Shiraz, Iran, 24-27 April (2000).
CO2 is recognised, by many scientists, as the main greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Many countries have taken steps towards reducing the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere. These efforts could be divided into three categories. They are, using renewable energy sources, increasing the efficiency of industrial plants using fossil fuels, and sequestering and disposal of the produced CO2. There are major research activities addressing the above, with particular emphasis on increasing the efficiency of the existing fossil fuel plants. Recently, sequestering and disposal of CO2 has attracted significant attention. An important economical consideration for this option is the cost of purifying CO2 from flue gas, which could account to about 35% of the total cost. This paper deals with various potential options for CO2 sequestering and disposal after relative purification. The main options discussed here are ocean, aquifer, subsea hydrates, injection into depleted reservoirs, forestry, coalbed methane, and various EOR processes. It seems that there is significant potential for CO2 disposal in various EOR processes, injection into depleted reservoirs and saline aquifers. Ocean disposal does not seem to be very attractive due to potential environmental concerns. Recent research shows that forestry could be an important and valuable delay mechanism, which can buy much needed time at present. More research is required in all of the above options, in particular hydrates and coalbed methane. The last two options could be regarded as unconventional sources of energy. Another important issue is the CO2 quota trading, which allows the countries to sell/buy their CO2 quotas. This is a cost for industrial countries and could provide an income for less developed countries.

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